What is cryptography?
Cryptography is the method to hide the information with the use of microdots, image-word merging, or with some other ways. In technical arena, it can be termed as scrambling plain text into an encrypted form, usually called Ciphertext, then again to convert it into decrypted format known as Cleartext. This process of encoding and decoding is called cryptography and people practicing this field are known as cryptographers.
What are the Objectives of Cryptography?
Modern cryptography follows the below objectives-
1. Confidentiality- anyone who is out of the circle cannot understand the information between the sender and receiver.
2. Integrity- no alteration is possible once the message is released.
3. Authentication- information, and sources in the cryptography system are purely authentic. Both sender and receiver can identify each other and origin or destination of the information.
4. Non-repudiation- none of the sender or receivers can step back of the message at a later stage.
5. Access control- only authorized people can access the confidential data.
To fulfill the above objectives the following formats of cryptography are practiced-
1. Symmetric cryptography- also known as secret key cryptography, it is a method in which both sender and receiver share the same secret code and key for encryption and decryption. This technique is useful if you are communicating with a limited number of people, however, it is not much useful for mass communication.
2. Asymmetric cryptography- this is also known as public key cryptography in which, separate keys are used for encryption and decryption. This is useful for key exchange and digital signatures such as RSA, digital signature algorithm, public-key cryptography standard etc.
3. Message-digest- in this, a hash function is used to permanently encrypt the data. This is also called one-way encryption.
Cryptography protects the network resources against alteration, destruction, and their unauthorized use. They secure the network system, IT assets, and the confidential data. In today’s scenario, it has become quite easy to alter or restrain the data and information. Theft of confidential information is again a discomforting phenomenon.